As a result, sickness and death were prevalent on every slaver. Source 8: A slave revolt. This produced copious perspiration, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells and brought on a sickness among the slaves of which many died” (1999: 33). The amount of bodies, the lack of ventilation, and excrement created unimaginable, unsanitary conditions that were inhuman and savage. Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. Some slaves lost the desire to eat as Equiano explained that the loathsome, intolerable stench from the hold made him become “so sick and low” that he was not able to eat, nor did he have the least desire to taste anything (1999: 32). Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave trade and the Making of the Americas. He goes on to state that the sharks will follow the slave ships across the Atlantic, waiting to feed on any slaves that enter the water (Bosman, 1967: 281, 282). Crossing the Lake of Fire: Slave Resistance during the Middle Passage, 1720-1842 By Bly, Antonio T The Journal of Negro History, Vol. Examining the Middle Passage. Next, their gums would hemorrhage while the tissue became weak and spongy. New York : Barnes & Noble Inc. Conneau, Theophilus Captain. If a severe flogging did not inspire them to eat, they would burn their lips with hot coals, even threatening to force the burning coals down their throats. 1976. Of these, nearly 18 percent died during the transatlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. An Account of the Slave Trade off the Coast of Africa. Known as the "middle passage," this sea voyage could range from one to six months, depending on the weather. 1997. Dysentery, one of the common diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood. Source 5: Britannia. To combat and prevent scurvy, sailors regularly forced slaves to rinse their mouths out with vinegar (Thomas, 1997: 419). Adding to the despair and distress of being reduced to slavery was the widespread fear that they were being sold as food. Source 9: Elizabeth Heyrick. The main tasks are to answer source questions and there is level criteria provided. Source 7: Election Handbill. 1968. In a scramble, each slave is priced the same and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim. The American Yawp, Joseph Locke and Ben Wright, eds., last modified Horse beans were the cheapest food you could get in Europe at the time. Scurvy was another common disease suffered by the slaves during The Middle Passage. Anderson Library located at the University of Houston’s main campus. Change ). Upon the site of land, the weakened, traumatized slaves were no longer restricted to their limited rations of food and water, if there was no shortage (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). The women were not put in irons, unless they were considered troublesome. Determined to get the best, arguments and fights would break out between the competitive purchasers (Falconbridge, 1973: 34). Regardless of how they became slaves, they were housed in these merciless factories until the slave ships arrived. If the weather proves favorable, they are permitted to remain in that situation till four or five in the afternoon, when they are disengaged from the chain, and sent down” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). Hard labor made tobacco, rice, and sugar plantations profitable. Middle passage lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students learning. 1973. Chills were common from the temperature change going from deck to steamy hold. Legacies of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (Smallwood) United Nations Human Development Report (2010) Friday, Aug 5, 2011. “The women, in particular, clang to each other in agonies fiercely to be conceived, shrieking through excess of terror, at the savage manner in which their brutal purchasers rushed upon and seized them” (Falconbridge, 1973: 35). New York: AMS Press. However, captains had barbaric and iron-handed ways of getting these none-eating slaves to submit to a meal. Many slaves displayed symptoms of pneumonia (Munford, 1991: 308, 309). A slavers’ Logbook, or 20 years’ residence in Africa. define the Middle Passage and relate its role in the slave trade ; discuss the conditions of slaves on Middle Passage ; Length: 1 hour . While they were in, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the cabin. Sometimes they would refuse to comply with his desires and would be severely beaten by him and sent below…there was one girl that he retained for some time as his favorite and kept her in his cabin” (Dow, 1968: 191). They were forced to strip naked and were checked by their purchasers to make sure they were in suitable condition. Newport News, Virginia: Smithsonian Institution Press. The disheartened slaves were also forced by the cracking of the whip to sing. They told us we were not to be eaten, but to work, and were soon to go on land, where we should see many of our country people” (1999: 35). The material used for this research includes first-hand accounts (Captain Logs, seamen diaries, and slave narratives) as well as other appropriate secondary sources. The cold-blooded state of affairs and the brutal process of The Middle Passage began on the coast of West Africa where enslaved Africans were held prisoners by their African captors. Source 3: Poster. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, Olaudah. If this article or any other content on was helpful to you, and you’d like to show your support: Your email address will not be published. Sources created later by someone who did not participate in the event. Source 2: Campaign Medallion. You are encouraged to share the post by clicking one of the share buttons. The Middle Passage Conditions. Conditions inside the holds were inhuman. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources. Their lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. The Middle Passage ended with the slave’s arriving in the Americas. 1999. In fact, most captains were ‘tight packers’, storing as many slaves as possible, each of them squished together like in a can of sardines (Drake, 1972: 39, 43, 59, 89). After being secured in this fashion, they were sent down into the hold, where they were stored in partitioned off apartments. Required fields are marked *, Native American Headdress – Music Festival Goers. ... For this American colonies lesson, 4th graders research using primary and secondary sources, Native Americans, Europeans, and African Americans role in the... Get Free Access See Review. Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. ( Log Out /  Upon a given signal, or time, the purchasers would race into the holding pin and grab or lay claim to the best and healthiest. Slaves that were weak, but not deathly sick, were fed and cleaned before being marched to the merchants’ yard to await the grim treatment of the auction (Thomas, 1997: 432). The result was that slaves would be forced to relieve themselves as they lay there (Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21). ( Log Out /  Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. Captain Rich’d Drake, an African slave trader for fifty years, described how the blacks were examined head to foot, having their joints and muscles squeezed, their arms and legs twisted, their breast and groins pinched without mercy. Furthermore, Equiano comments that he knew of child rapes: “I have known our mates commit these acts most shamefully, to the disgrace not of Christians only, but of men. After an examination of this material, it is apparent that the cruel treatment of the slaves coupled with the inhuman conditions aboard the slavers resulted in high mortality rates while causing the survivors to emerge physically weak as well as mentally terrified. Secondary Sources. The holds had very little ventilation usually with only five to six airports on each side of the ship. Materials. A biography of Theodore Roosevelt written in 2001 Primary Secondary 2. Slaves that were not stored next to these buckets had trouble reaching them. In this lesson, students will use primary sources from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture to better understand the history of slavery in the United States. Source 10 - Cruikshank's cartoon . “Flux is similarly defined as an abnormally copious flowing of blood and excrement from the bowels or other organs; a morbid or excessive discharge” (JMR). Introduction to Primary and Secondary Sources for Elementary and Middle School Students Objectives: This is a skill-based lesson that is intended to introduce a wide range of students to the world of primary sources and how to work and think critically like a historian. 1991. The right wrist and ankle of one person was connected to the left wrist and ankle of the other. Between meals, and sometimes at night, the slaves were forced to dance and sing as a form of cruel exercise or sadistic entertainment. One person with smallpox could wipe out everyone on the ship. The transatlantic slave trade began around 1518 and ended sometime after the 1870’s. “This becomes a fresh source of boils and disturbances…rendering the condition of the poor captive wretches still more uncomfortable” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). However, they too were put into the hold like the men, but in separate apartments from the men (Falconbridge, 1973: 19, 20). Vitamin C and Scurvy. A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. The greedy, brutish, madhouse of the scramble was just another stress for the poor slaves. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. “Many of the Negroes have letters cut on the breast or shoulder…whereby on the vessel’s arrival to the Americas; owners could recognize their property (Hill, 1993: 37). The nightmare for the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather. The Middle Passage: Voyage into Bondage. Without fresh air or ventilation, the hold became intolerably hot (Falconbridge, 1973: 24). The autobiography continues to tell the tale of his survival and how he eventually came to buy his freedom. Pliny's dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a statement by his nephew that he died in his 56th year, which would put his birth in AD 23 or 24.. Pliny was the son of an equestrian Gaius Plinius Celer and his wife Marcella. 1998. They hurried back to their cabin and locked themselves inside. The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. 3, Summer 1998 PR PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s). “The eruption of smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose, and terrors in sleep” (Razi, 2000). Drake reported what an auction entailed, “The Dutch maids walked around inspecting the naked Africans as if it was a common thing. Inflicted slaves had little choice but to lay in their own filth, and those stored on the bottom of the hold were subject to the mess flowing between the spaces in the upper planks (Munford, 1991: 308). William Bosman, another seaman involved in the African slave trade, remarks that he saw no sharks in the coastal waters of Africa’s gold coast except at the main outlets where slaves were dispatched to the Americas. Huskey, Robert J. 1993. If the slaves danced reluctantly, or the least bit sloppy, they were whipped for inspiration (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Map reproduced by permission of Yale University Press. Most of the time, slaves that needed to reach the tubs were prevented from doing so. Frequently, weak slave children would be found lying in a tub, smothered in sickness, unable to lift themselves out after having fallen in (Hill, 1993: 38). The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Examining Primary Sources. Although the black traders who dealt in African slaves were careful not to revel the circumstances under which slaves were collected, Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was involved in the slave trade, had reason to believe that most of the slaves were victims of a heartless action known as kidnapping (1973: 13). Th… It had nine separate appendages of log line, each with several knots (Falconbridge, 1973: 40). ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? One can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling. Cohn, Raymond L. "Deaths of Slaves in the Middle Passage" The Journal of Economic History (Sep., 1985): 685-692. … Grief typically filled their distressing eyes with tears during their coerced crooning (Dow, 1968: 195). National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. This is part 1 of a lesson learning about the middle passage. Bosman, William. Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. He goes on to say that he was “flogged severely for not eating” (1999: 32). Bailey, Anne C. African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame. There have even been reports of a captain who poured melted lead onto slaves who refused to eat (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). The food was terrible and the worst was horse beans. The darkies were obliged to go through every sort of motion. Source 4: A Negro's Complaint. With each meal, they were given one cup of water. 1967. Primary Source: a record made by people who saw or took part in an event (originates from the past) Secondary Source: a record of an event written by someone not there at the time **Key question: Is this a primary/secondary source? The voyage from Africa to the New World of the Americas was called the Middle Passage. “These filled me with astonishment, that was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe…I was immediately handed and tossed up to see if I was sound by some of the crew, and I was persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me…when I looked round the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling and multitude of black people, of every description, chained together, everyone of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted” (Equiano, 1999: 31). It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. The platforms were “Placed nearly midway between the decks, at the distance of two or three feet from each deck” (Falconbridge, 1973: 20). Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. Circle the correct answer. There is evidence that Equiano may have been born in South Carolina and not Africa. They contain a mix of written and picture sources. Secondary sources can include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, History magazines, websites, and documentaries. The Black Ordeal of Slavery and Slave Trading in the French West Indies 1625-1715. History & Special Collections UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Interpretations of original documents . It is no wonder that some slaves went “raving mad, and screech like wild beast” (Drake, 1972: 50). These storage selves made it impossible for slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright. The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. Original materials. Equiano states that, “The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of the terrified Africans” (1999: 35, 36). Before being loaded onto the ships, the slaves–males and females–had their heads shaved by their African captors. To summarize, the transportation of African slaves from the West coast of Africa, across the Atlantic, to the Americas during the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries has come to be known as The Middle Passage. Many of these slaves were prisoners of war from native conflicts/slave hunting (Conneau, 1976: 104). Arguments and quarrels typically broke out between slaves who needed to reach the tubs and those that needed to be crawled over. 1. Revelations of a slave smuggler. “The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered it a scene of horror almost inconceivable” (Equiano, 1999: 33). Terrified Africans died and became feeble from a variety of diseases that were aggravated by the ruthless methods of their captors and the bestial conditions they suffered on board the ship. Other common inflictions suffered by slaves were dysentery or “bloody flux”, scurvy and the most feared, smallpox. Thus, the formerly free Africans who survived the cruel and inhuman process known as The Middle Passage began a lifetime of servitude in the Americas. A negroe in the West-Indies informed me that after having been employed in kidnapping others, he had experienced this reverse. the “middle passage” is an old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade. The women may not have had to suffer in irons but they were subject to other evil-minded and unsparing treatments. Sometimes they would encircle whole groupings with a rope. It has been estimated that a third of the slave deaths during The Middle Passage were attributed directly and indirectly to dehydration (Thomas, 1997: 423).

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